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40 Different Types Of Fishes In World and Their Specialties

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Fish is a member of paraphyletic group of organisms. This consists of gill-bearing aquatic craniates animals with limbs and digits. Most of the fishes are hagfish, cartilaginous, bony fish and lampreys. Fishes are ectothermic which means cold-blooded. Fish are abundant in most of the bodies of water. Fishes are an important resource for human in worldwide especially as food because it consists of a lot of minerals, vitamins and proteins as it stays in water bodies. These are served as religious symbols.

They breathe through the gills, which serves the same function as our lungs. Bony fishes have only a single gill. Fish has a closed-loop circulatory system. They are an omnivorous group because they feed on plants and other small sea animals of water bodies. Fishes excrete nitrogenous and ammonia. Fishes reproduce highly in open water column only. The eggs have an average of diameter of one millimetre only.

Take a look at some of the list of types of fishes that are pretty common around the world. They are all unique yet share the beauty of being one.

Types of Fish Names That are common Around the World:

Some of the wide varieties of fishes which are available in the world are as followed:

1. Siamese Fighting Fish:

Types of fishes 1

Scientific Name:

The scientific name of Siamese fighting fish is known as betta splendens.

Family and History:

This fish is classified under the classification of betta. It is an aquarium fish. It belongs to a family of Gourami family. Other names of this fish are pla-kad and trey krem. They can mingle with other fish. The body length of the fish is seven centimetres and it appears in colours of red, green, opaque, albino, orange, yellow and blue etc.

Lifespan:

The Lifespan of this fish is about 2 years only. Water temperature must be around 23 degrees– 27 degrees.

2. Common Carp:

Types of Fish in India Common Carp

Scientific Name: Scientific name of common carp is cyprinuscario. This kind of fish is found in a flaming gorge reservoir, lake Mohave, Aral Sea and more places.

Family and History:

It is classified under cyprinus. Body mass of this fish is about 2-14 kilograms. These are grown in freshwater lakes. Mostly found in water bodies in Asia and Europe. They can tolerate low oxygen levels.

These are omnivorous. It can lay up to 300,000 eggs in a single spawn. This fish is taken as food by humans all over the world.

Lifespan: Lifespan of common carp is until 47 years.

3. Goldfish:

Types of fishes 3

Scientific Name: Scientific name of goldfish is Carassius auratus. It is classified under the higher classification of Carassius. It is mostly found in Utah Lake.

Family and History:

It is an aquarium fish. This fish native is in East Asia. It was domesticated in China and later breeds have developed. Size of this fish is 19 inches.

Goldfish has an ability of strong learning, social learning skills. Goldfishes are gregarious. They feed on insects and plants. Goldfish eggs hatch within 48-72 hours.

Lifespan: Lifespan of goldfish is about 30 years. Haven’t we all seen one?

4. Oscar:

 

Types of fishes 4

Scientific Name: Scientific name of Oscar is Astronotusoscellatus. It is classified under the higher classification of Astronotus. Other names of Oscar are tiger Oscar, marble cichlid and velvet cichlid.

Family and History:

Thees species are found in South America, Australia, United States and China. It is seen as aquarium fish. Body length of Oscar is about 36cm and mass of the body is 1.4 kg. They grow quickly and are carnivores.

Lifespan: These have territorial behaviour. The lifespan of this fish is about 10-13 years.

5. Wels Catfish:

Types of fishes 5

Scientific Name:

The scientific name of Wells catfish is Silurusglanis. It is classified under the classification of Silurus. It is also called as sheatfish.

Family and History:

This fish is mostly found in Lake Constance. These also found in basins of Baltic, black and Caspian Sea. Size of this fish is about 13 ft that is of 4m. Maximum weight is about 400kg. These are mostly found in freshwater places. They feed on other animals which live in water bodies.

Use: These are taken as food by humans. It is rich in proteins and nutrients.

Lifespan: Lifespan of this fish is about 60 years.

6. Zander:

Types of fishes 6

Scientific Name: Scientific name of Zander is Sander Lucioperca.

Family and History:

This fish is classified under the classification of Sander. It is mostly found in Aral Sea and Lake Constance. It is also called as pike-perch. Species of Zander fish from freshwater and brackish habitats in western Eurasia.

Use: It is eaten by humans and is rich in nutrients. Mass of the body is 20 kilograms. These fishes can be hybrid.

Lifespan: Lifespan of this kind of fish is usually very less.

7. European Seabass:

Types of fishes 7

Scientific Name:

Scientific name of European seabass is Dicentrarchuslabrax.

Family and History:

It is classified under the higher classification of Dicentrarchus. These are primarily ocean-going fish. These are seen in brackish and fresh waters as well. It is also known as sea dance. These are marketed by loup de mer, robalo, spigola, brinzino, Mediterranean seabass and Branzino. It is regarded as table fish. It is mostly night hunter and feeds on small fish like crustaceans, cephalopods and polychaetes.

Lifespan: It has a lifespan of about 25 years.

8. Northern Pike:

Types of fishes 8

Scientific Name: It is known simply as a pike in Britain, Canada, Ireland and some parts of United States.

Family and History:

This fish is classified under the classification Esox. It is considered as a symbol of North Dakota. It is founded in Fort Peck Lake, Lake George and Lake of the Woods and many more. They feed on big prey of animals which live in water bodies.

Lifespan: Lifespan of this fish is about seven years in wild.

9. Sword Fish:

Types of fishes 9

Scientific Name:

The scientific name of sword fish is Xiphias gladius.

Family and History:

It is classified under the higher classification of Xiphias; Swordfish are well known as broadbills in some of the countries. These migrate from one place to another and are mostly found in tropical and temperate parts of Indian Oceans, Pacific Ocean and the Atlantic Ocean. They are found under the depth of 550m. They reach to a length 9.8 ft and mass of 650 kilo grams. It is called as swordfish because it has a sword like spear to kill prey and make it is easier to eat. These are vigorous fighters.

Use and Lifespan: It is hunted by humans and taken as food and lives for about 9 years.

10. Tench:

Types of fishes 10

Scientific Name: Scientific name of Tench is Tincatinca. Tench is called Schlei in Germany. This fish is classified under a higher classification of Tinca. It is mostly found in Lake Constance and Lake Garda. It is found majorly in fresh and brackish water only.

Family and History:

It is a family member of cyprinid. Its family is most seen in Eurasia and Western Europe. It is even found in Lake Baikal. These are the best resources for the recopies for humans. It is used for better economy.

Lifespan: It lives up to 15 years and can live for 30 years in captivity.

11. Atlantic Cod:

Types of fishes 11

Scientific Name: Scientific name of Atlantic cod is Gadusmorhua. It is well known as benthopelagic. It is classified under the classification Gadus.

Family and History: It is a family member of Gadidae. It is widely found in Bay of Biscay, north of Arctic Ocean, North Sea and Baltic Sea etc. It can grow up to 2 meters in length and mass of the body is 96 kilograms.

Use and Lifespan: It is widely consumed by the humans. Commercially it is called as codling or cod. The lifespan of cod is about 25 years. It attains sexual maturity in between the ages of two and four. Their colour will vary from brown to green.

12. Atlantic Mackerel:

Types of fishes 12

Scientific Name: Scientific name of Atlantic mackerel is Scomberscombrus. It is classified under the classification of scomber.

Family and History: These are found on both sides of North Atlantic Ocean. Species of Atlantic mackerel are called as mackerel or Boston mackerel. Almost ten species of a family were caught in British waters. This fish migrates towards the coast for a feed of small fishes and prawns in summer. It forms large schools near the surface of cold and temperate shelf areas. They move to shore when water temperatures range between 11-14 degrees.

Lifespan and Use: Lifespan of mackerel is about 20 years. It will become the best food for the humans.

13. Common Bream:

Types of fishes 13

Scientific Name: Scientific name of the Common bream is Abramisbrama. It is widely known as carp bream, bronze bream, freshwater bream and abramis bream.

Family and History:

This is classified under the classification of Abramis. It belongs to a family of Cyprinidae. It is found in Aral lake and Lake Constance. The length of bream is about 30-55cm and mass is about 2- 4 kg. Recorded length is 0cm and weight is 9.1 kg. It is an omnivore. It eats larvae and plankton of sea. Generally, they spawn in the month of April to June.

Use and Lifespan: This kind of fish is used for both purposes of sport and commercial purposes and lives for about 29 years.

14. Basa Fish:

Types of fishes 14

Scientific Name: Scientific name of the basa fish is Pangasiusbacourti. It is classified under the classification of Pangasius.

Family and History:

This is the species of catfish. It belongs to a family of Pangasildae. The native of basa is at Chao Phraya and Mekong basins in Indonesia. These are labelled in Australia and North America as basa, panga, swai and bocorti etc. The body of basa fish will be heavy and stout. Length of the body is 120 centimetres. They feed on plants. They spawn on the flood season in the month of June which has an average of 5 cm.

Use and Lifespan: It used as frozen food in some countries. They are rich in proteins and is a river fish and have a long lifespan, which is yet to be determined.

15. European Fish:

Types of fishes 15

Scientific Name: Scientific name of European fish is Percafluviatilis. It is known as red fin perch, English perch, and perch. It is classified under the higher classification of Perch.

Family and History: These are seen in northern Asia and Europe. Body length of the fish will be 60cm and weight will be of 2.8 kg. Perch spawn deposits egg at end of the month April and beginning of May on water plants. Eggs are migrated through birds to other waters as eggs stick to the bird’s legs.

Lifespan: These are mostly the aquarium fishes and live for over 22 years.

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16. Rainbow Trout:

Types of fishes 16

Scientific Name: The scientific name of this type of fish is rainbow trout is Oncorhynchus mykiss. It is classified under the classification of Oncorhynchus.

Family and History: These are species of salmonid. It is represented as symbol Washington. It is found Flaming Gorge Reservoir, Watuga Lake, and Lake Mohave and many more. They live in oceans for two –three year and move to spawns. Spawns of these fishes are called as steel head. Maximum mass of a body is about 9 kg.

Use and Lifespan: It is introduced as food and sport for almost 45 countries in the world. Their lifespan is usually about 11years and is one of the healthiest food to include in your diet.

17. Ocean Sun Fish:

Types of fishes 17

Scientific Name: Scientific name of Ocean sunfish is Molamola. It is classified under the classification of mola.

Family and History: It is the heaviest bony fish in the world. Sunfish diet consists of mainly Jellyfish; the reason is it is nutritionally poor. These will become food for predators like a sea lion, killer fishes etc. These are native to tropic waters and temperate to every ocean in the world. They swim up to 26 km per day.

Use and Lifespan: Yummy dishes can be made out of sunfish and they usually live for about 10 years in captivity, while their lifespan in their natural habitat is not known.

18. Blob Fish:

Types Of Sea Fish Blob Fish

Scientific Name: Scientific name of blobfish is Psychroulutesmarcidus.

Family and History: The fish is classified under the classification of Pdychrolutes and is a deep sea fish. It is a family member of Psychroulutidae. It is found in the sea water of Australia, New Zealand and Tasmania. Length of blobfish is typically shorter than 30 cm. They live in depths between 600 to 1200 m. It feeds on crustaceans.

Lifespan: Their lifespan is not determined.

19. Blue Fish:

Types of fishes 19

Scientific Name: Scientific name of bluefish is Pomatomussaltatrix.

Family and History:

This fish is classified under the classification of Pomatou and belongs to a family of Pomatomidae. IIIawarra Lake, Black sea and Lake Macquarie are the places to see this fish. It is marine pelagic fish found in temperate and subtropical waters. It is also known as tailor in Australia. Bluefish is moderately proportioned fish with forked tail. Length of the body ranges from 20 -60 cm and mass of the body will be of 14 kg. They live in groups and are fast swimmers.

Lifespan: Lifespan of this fish is about 9 years.

20. Doctor Fish:

Types of fishes 20

Scientific Name: Scientific name of doctor fish is Garrarufa.

Family and History: It is classified under the classification of Garra. Other names of doctor fish are bonefish, kangal fish and nibble fish. The species are bred in Turkish river systems.

Use and Lifespan: These are used in a spa treatment for the skin patients to cure psoriasis. They occur in river basins of Central Middle East and Northern part of Syria, Turkey, Oman, Iran and Iraq. This kind of fish lives for about 6-7 years.

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21. Zebra Fish:

Types of fishes 21

Scientific Name: Scientific name of zebra fish is Danio rerio.

Family and History:

It is classified under the classification of danio. It is found in tropical freshwater and belongs to minnow family of the order Cypriniformes. It native is from the Himalayan region. It is a popular aquarium fish. It is sold under the trade name zebra danio. It is widely used as model organism in scientific research. It is the first vertebrate to clone. It is found in regions like India, Bangladesh, Nepal, Burma and Pakistan. These are mostly seen in the Ganges regions. These are omnivorous. It means their prey includes plankton of phyto and zoo. These are seen in the aquarium.

Lifespan: Their lifespan is usually 5.5 years and shows signs of ageing over time.

22. Sand Steenbras:

Types of fishes 22

Scientific Name: Scientific name of sand Steenbras is Lithognathusmormyrus.

Family and History:

It is classified under the classification of Lithognathus. It is a marine fish and belongs to a family of Sparidae. It is found in shallow water in the Mediterranean Sea and in the Eastern Atlantic Ocean from France to South Africa. It is even observed in the Red Sea and coast of Mozambique in the Indian Ocean. Length of the body will be about 55cm and weight will be around 1 kg.

Lifespan: Their lifespan is not known yet.

23. Nile Tilapia:

Types of Fish in India Nile Tilapia

Scientific Name: Scientific name of Nile tilapia is Oreochromis niloticus.

Family and History:

It is classified under the classification of Oreochromis. It is found in the Lake Victoria. Its native is from Africa and Gambia. It is also called as mango tilapia. Length of the body will be 6o cm and weighs up to 4.3 kg. It is an omnivore. It feeds both plankton and harmful gases like carbon dioxide, ammonia and hydrogen sulphide. The red hybrid is taken as plathaptim in Thai. It means it is a pomegranate fish or ruby fish. In different types of fish in India, it will be one.

Lifespan: Their lifespan is usually for 9 years.

24. Flathead Grey Mullet:

Freshwater Fish List Flathead Grey Mullet

Scientific Name: Scientific name of flathead grey mullet is Mugil Cephalusi. It comes in the list of different types of freshwater fish.

Family and History:

It is classified under the classification of Mugil. It is found in Red Sea and Lake Awoonga. It is found in coastal tropical and subtropical waters worldwide. Body length is about 30-75 centimeters. It is well known as bully mullet, grey mullet, common mullet, mullet and sea mullet. They feed on algae in the fresh water.

Use and Lifespan: It is special food for humans across the world. In Egypt, it is salted, dried and pickled to make feseekh. Their lifespan is about 11-16 years.

25. European Eel:

Types of fishes 25

Scientific Name: Scientific name of European eel is Anguilla Anguilla.

Family and History:

It is classified under the higher classification of Anguillidae. It is a fish like snake and catadromous fish. Length of the body reaches up to 1.5 m and rarely reaches 1m. Mass of the body will be of 3.6 kg.

Use and Lifespan: It is eaten by a human as a rich source of food. Its species are being extinct and live for about 60 years.

26. Neon Tetra:

Types of fishes 26

Scientific Name: Scientific name of Neon tetra is Paracheiodoninnesi.

Family and History: It is classified under the classification of Paracheirodon. This is freshwater fish which belongs to a family of characin family. Its native is in black waters. It is seen in some of the countries like Peru and Brazil etc. Tetras are omnivores. It is kept in the same tank as shoaling effect is enjoyable when they swim around the tank.

Lifespan: It is an aquarium fish and lives for about 5 years.

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Fishes That You Can Cook:

While there are different kinds of fish in the aquatic ecosystem, not all of them are fit for cooking. Doctors recommend eating fish thrice a week to make the best of their nutrients. Clams, oysters, lobsters, shrimps have a high content of mercury in them and excess intake of these fishes are not considered safe. Here are the safest bets.

1. Salmon:

Salmon fish has a high content of omega-3. Omega 3 is known to reduce blood pressure and is a good source of protein.

2. Tuna:

Tuna is another kind of fish that is rich in omega 3. It is especially good for the pregnant women and the growing foetus. It is an excellent source of animal protein.

3. Sardines:

Fish, in general, have omega 3 in them that lowers the risk of stroke, depression, and also some cancers. The DHA and fatty acid in Tilefish will nourish the brain and is a healthy option to include in your diet.

4. Cod:

Cod is a good source of heart-healthy omega-3 fatty acids and is especially rich in lean protein and vitamin B-12. It is available all throughout the year weighs anywhere from 1.5 to 100 pounds. Many cultures consider the cheeks and tongue as delicacies.

5. Tuna:

Canned tuna has lower mercury levels than tuna steaks and sushi, and two cannedtuna meals a week is good for the body. Pregnant women should not eat canned white tuna and should limit canned light tuna intake. The reason why it is bad is because of the high levels of mercury in them. Intake of large amounts of these mercury high fish and shellfish can result in high levels of mercuryin the human body. In a foetus or young child, this can damage the brain and nervous system.

10 Best Aquarium Fishes and Their Specialties:

If the aquarium is your first time, here are some of the fishes that you can pick for it.

Caution: some of them have superpowers!

1. Gold Fish:

Goldfish come in many varieties of sizes and colours. The preferred choice by many is the fancier variety with bubbly heads and fanned tails. They are great for beginners who have an unheated aquarium. These fish prefer temperatures between 62-74 degrees Fahrenheit. Their superpower is that they age slower and live longer when taken care of well.

2. Bloodfin Tetras:

This type of fish has a silver body and rid fins that are striking. They live up to 10 years and are very active. It usually prefers to live in a group and is almost always peaceful. They are otherwise shy fish when kept in isolation. They usually hide and tend to stay away from the school when sick. Their speciality is that they jump excessively, so remember to keep your tank closed.

3. White Cloud:

This is yet another type of fish that is small and tolerates cold temperatures. Some people keep these in outdoor ponds over the summer. They tolerate temperatures as low as 60 degrees Fahrenheit. They are a hardy fish that tends to live in the middle and top areas of the tank. They prefer to live in a group. One speciality is that they are easy to maintain and generally display peaceful temperament.

4. Danios:

Danios are a kind of fish that requires a heated tank. A heated tank will enable you to keep a lot of varieties of them. This fish is hardy and do well in a variety of conditions and hence, are a perfect first choice. Danios are active and small. They prefer to be in a group near the surface of the water. The one good part about them is they are not picky eaters and do well with flake fish.

5. Black Molly:

Black Molly is a peaceful fish. It is a good choice if you want a community tank with several types of fish. One big advantage of choosing this fish is that it can adapt to fresh, brackish and salt water. So, you can relax when having to set up a tank. These fish prefer a temperature that ranges from 70 to 82 degrees Fahrenheit.

6. Black Skirt Tetra:

The black skirt tetra is another peaceful fish that should be kept in a pair or in a larger group. These are hardy fish that and are great eaters. They will eat just any prepared food. They tend to swim in the middle of the tank and hate to be confronted. Make sure to keep plants around that will allow them to hide.

7. Kuhli Loach:

The Kuhli Loach is an eel-like fish that are hardy fish which will be a great addition to your tank. It is a bottom-dweller that is unique in that it hides during the daytime. You might observe that it tunnels under the gravel or hides in a cave. It will, therefore, be a good idea to offer hiding places for this fish. The speciality of this fish is that they keep the tank clean by eating the food that falls from above the bottom of the tank.

8. Swordtails:

These are the hardy and long-lasting fish, which makes it perfect for beginners. With a variety of colours to choose from, you may want to add them to your tank for a variety. The speciality about them is that they add some level of brightness to your tank and thus remain attractive.

9. Betta:

Betta comes with attractive flash and colour. This type of fish in India is pretty common in the tanks. It is recommended to have only one of the kind in the tank, otherwise, they might end up fighting with each other. Their speciality is that they are excellent fighters.

10. Platies:

Platies are great for beginners because there are so many varieties to choose from. They come in different colours. They are also selectively bred to make a new combination of colours. Their specialty is that they almost always any flake or dried food. So, you don’t really have to think about what to feed them.

An aquarium is a good addition to your house. Despite this, some fishes are excellent sources of protein and omega 3 for the body. While some of them are unfit for consumption, the others are filled with the goodness of nutrients. Make sure to pick the right one to eat and the right one to include in your tank.