15 Different Types Of Forests With Pictures

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Forest helps to maintain the ecosystem of the Earth. Forest consists of variety of trees and woody vegetation. It is also said to be a perfect place for variety of flora and fauna. Forests cover a wide region of our Earth crust and are well distributed across the whole world. It also plays a very important role in maintaining ecological balance. Forests are the place for tourist attraction and they also provide several products that are helpful to mankind. They provide shelter for different animals and a habitat for them.

Types of Forests

These types of forest present in a particular place is dependent on the temperature of the region and the longitude & latitude. Different latitude has different ecozones. Like, Boreal forests are found near the poles tropical forests are found near the equator and temperate forests are at mid latitude.

Different Types of Forests in World With Names:

Classification of forest can be done on the various criteria. 15 different types of forests found all over the globe are given below:

1. Temperate Deciduous Broad Leaf Forest:

The temperate deciduous forest is also called temperate broad leaf forest. This type of forest is mainly found in Northern hemisphere. Also found in some areas of southern South America and Australasia. The regions are East Asia, Europe and North America. The trees of this type of forest lose their leaves every year. They are found in moist summer and mild winter regions. Northern hemisphere includes trees like oak, maple, elm in this deciduous forest.


In the natural forest, 30% is canopy cover and in which 75% of canopy is broad leaf and deciduous. There is a phenomenon of seasonal appearance and disappearance of canopy. The migratory birds appear during the opening of the canopy and woodpeckers are frequently seen as they mainly depend on dead and dying trees as the source of their shelter and food also.

2. Thorn Forest:

In this type of forest, canopy is composed of deciduous trees with thorns. This forest is below 1200 m altitude with 30% canopy cover. This forest covers a large part of southwestern Africa and Southwestern North America,. It also covers some parts of Africa, Australia and South America. Thorn forest has scrub like vegetation and is of dense forest. Dry subtropical and warm temperate areas with seasonal or low rainfall are the characteristic feature of the thorn forest.


In South America thorn forest mainly consists of thorny small trees which shed seasonally. The average height of the trees is between 7 meters and 8 meters, not more than 10 m. This thorn forest grades into desert as the climate becomes adverse and drier. Thus the name of this type of forest suits the type of vegetation found over here.

3. Mangroves:

The term mangrove came from Spanish and is considered to be originated from Guarani. The main characteristic feature of mangrove forest is the different species of mangrove trees which are usually found along the coast of salt water. They are found between latitudes 25 N and 25 S. Mangrove forest occurs in the tropical regions world widely. Mangroves are found in tidal areas and where areas include the marine shorelines. They are scrub land habitat or saline woodland habitat where there is a high depositional in area. The mangrove swamps protect the coastal areas from the soil erosion, tsunamis, cyclones and storms. Unique ecosystem is seen in the complex mesh of the roots. Algae, sponges, oysters, mud lobsters are usual found in these habitat.


Mangrove is normally found in 118 countries and regions of tropical and sub tropics. India, Bangladesh, Thailand, Vietnam and other countries among which Asia has the largest amount of mangroves with other parts as Africa, North and South America. Deltas of river Ganges, Godavari and others are known for mangrove forest. Sundarbans National park is listed in UNESCO world heritage for the ecosystem present there and mainly known for Royal Bengal Tiger and other variety of flora and fauna.

4. Sparse Trees And Parkland:

The sparse trees and parkland forest are the ones in which tree canopy cover is between 10% to 30% like the trees found in savannah regions of the globe. These trees occur in the areas mainly from forested to non forested landscapes. The boreal region and seasonally dry region are the two regions at which this type of ecosystem is present. The vegetation is also called open lichen woodland, forest tundra and taiga.


In the boreal forest at high temperature the conditions for growing are not appropriate to easily maintain a continuous forest cover. For this reason the forest cover in that region is discontinuous and sparse. Trees of the types needle leaf, palms, broad leaf are found in this forest. It has high bryophyte and deficit of species in this type of forests.

5. Needle Leaf Forest:

The canopy cover of trees in this forest is greater than 30% and these types of trees are mostly found below altitude 1200 meter. Long and cold winter regions predominately have this type of forest. The needle leaf forests are spread across northern Europe, Canada and Siberia. They are also called softwood forests. This forest also covers the mountain regions of Rocky Mountains and Alps. Firs and larches usually grow in the northern forests, also with broad leaf trees like willows, etc.


Willow can grow even farther north and these trees used to do. Many world largest trees are found into western United States. Some redwoods are as tall as 91 meters in height. Some of them grew in warmer regions like southeastern United States consisting of large forest of pines. Needle leaf forest is useful for providing greater quantity of wood for different purposes.

6. Semi Evergreen And Evergreen Moist Broad Leaf Forest:

The tropical and semi tropical moist forest are generally found in many regions all over the world and are found discontinuously between Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn. They normally have high level of rainfall and low variation in annual temperature of the forest. For these reason, it is composed of evergreen and semi evergreen forest. This forest consists of highest diversity of species in trees. The ecosystem has more species than any other forests have.


Forest canopy can be divided into layers such as lower canopy, shrub level, over story canopy with crowns, medium layered canopy and under story. Canopies are the home for the apes and monkeys, below that lies snakes and big cats. Gorillas and deer lies in the forest floor of this type. Thus it has diversified ecosystem. These forests covers the region like peninsular Malaysia, north western South America, western arc Of Amazon Basin,etc.

7. Lowland Evergreen Broad Leaf Rain Forest:

They are also referred as Tropical rain forests. The lowland evergreen forest is found in the altitudes below 1200 meters which have no seasonal change usually. An average precipitation remains all over the year at least of 60 mm. These forests extend mainly from equator about 10 degrees in north and 10 degree on south. Roughly they extend maximum to 28 degrees within the two tropics.


This rain forest can be classified into its sub types. The tropical rain forests is described as hot and wet. Due to high precipitation level, it leads to poor quality of soil. This tropical rain forest covers the region: Africa, Southern Asia, New Guinea, tropical America and some parts of Australia.

8. Freshwater Swamp Forest:

The fresh water swamp forest is also popularly known as flooded forests. They are either seasonal or permanent type of forest. They are found in different regions from subtropical to tropical and from boreal to temperate regions. Normally found around the fresh water lakes or lower portions of river, this satisfies the name of the forest.


The Eco regions of freshwater swamp forests are Australasia, Niger delta swamp forest in Nigeria, South Asia, Brazil, Peru and other parts. Characteristics of the trees in this forest are of any type of leaves and season. The main characteristic of this type is waterlogged soil.

9. Broad Leaf Evergreen Forest:

The canopy of this type of forest is broad leaf and also evergreen species of trees. This forest requires plentiful rainfall. This forest is restricted to southern Japan, coastal region of Gulf of Mexico and central China.


This ecology consists of four layers. Tall trees ranging from 30 m to 61 m in height is the predominant feature and below this there are three layers that range from 9 m to 15 m shorter than the canopy. The broad leaf trees include beeches, oaks and maple in northern hemisphere and in southern hemisphere Eucalyptus, etc occupies this ecosystem.

10. Exotic Species Plantation:

The term exotic is terms as introduced, non native, immigrant. The main difference between the invasion and exotic species is that the exotic ones are meant for conservation and also for profits. The trees have been planted with species by the people not occurring naturally in the region of the country and this manages a intensive forest having canopy cover greater than 30%.


They are being introduced in various parts of the world where it is required to maintain a balance and also meant to be useful. Exotic species have played a role in production of timber wood, fiber, fire wood or other products like in America. Tropical and sub tropical areas are best in soil quality and climatic condition for the exotic type of plantation.

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11. Deciduous Needle Leaf Forest:

The canopy for forest is predominantly deciduous and needle leaf. The deciduous needle leaf forest lies in between a particular latitude span. This forest is predominantly found in two main regions of the globe: One is in Eurasia of latitude from 40 degree to 75 degree and other is in Northern America.


The forest of Siberia, Europe and North America made up of evergreen conifers like Pine while that of in eastern Siberia the main is the larch which comprises a deciduous forest and sheds the needle leaves in winter. In the needle leaf forest areas, willow and brich are characteristic trees which are found in the borders of river or in the open spaces.

12. Evergreen Needle Leaf Forest:

This type of forests mainly have prominent evergreen and needle leaf canopy. This forest extends in mountain range and plateau region in lower latitudes. In Europe this forest extends over the high mountain ranges and in Scandinavia. In western North America, it extends to Rocky mountain range, southward of United States and Sierra Nevada.


The evergreen needle leaf forests provide deep shade to the ground. So leads to thick carpet mosses in the lower layers of the Eco system. This type of forest does not consist of variety of species except one or two varieties mainly.

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13. Sclerophyllous Dry Forest:


The word is coined from two Greek words, ‘skleros means hard and ‘phyllon’ means leaves. This forest occurs in many regions of the world. Sclerophyll is a type of vegetation which has shorter internodes and very hard leaves. They mainly consist of sclerophyllous broad leaves. This forest is found in the regions like parts of Australia, Mediterranean forest, some parts of Africa, California woodland and other parts. The common plants found are eucalyptus, tea tree and acacias. Dry sclerophyll is the most common type of forest with restricted rainfall.

14. Lower Montane Rain Forest:


This forest refers to rain forest in tropical regions on the mountain slopes different from the lowland rain forest in plains and flat lands. They are generally found between 1200-1800 meter altitude. They are generally above the evergreen rain forest of lowland and lower than the cloud forest in higher altitude. Lower montane rain forest is mostly distinct in Peninsular Malaysia, Bintang ranges and East coast mountain ranges. It can be classified into two sub types upper hill dipterocarp type and oak laurel type.

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15. Upper Montane Forest:


This upper montane forest is found in relatively very high altitudes in mountain regions. This vegetarian type is found normally below sub alpine forest and above mixed coniferous forest. This type is found in Sierra Nevada range, Lassen volcanic park, Pike and San Isabel nation forest. Trees like Jeffery pine, lodge pole pine, California red fir are the characteristic tree found in this type of forest. They are found in altitudes higher than 1800 meters with leaf type mixture.