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Types of Forests in The World and their Attractions to Visit

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Maintaining the balance of our ecosystem is a must. Forest consists of variety of trees and woody vegetation. It is also said to be a perfect place for variety of flora and fauna. Forests cover a wide region of our Earth crust and are well distributed across the whole world. Some of them are dense, while others are sparsely populated. Forests are the place for tourist attraction and they also provide several products that are helpful to mankind. They provide shelter for different animals and a habitat for them.

Types of Forests

These types of forest present in a particular place are dependent on the temperature of the region and the longitude & latitude. Different latitude has different ecozones. Like, Boreal forests are found near the poles tropical forests are found near the equator and temperate forests are at mid latitude.

So, if you have been wondering how many types of forests are there, here is a quick guide to your question. Predominantly, there are three different types of forest based on latitude.

Different Forest Types:

A. The Tropical:

Temperature is on average 20-25° C and varies little throughout the year. The average temperatures of the three warmest and three coldest months do not differ by more than 5 degrees. The precipitation is evenly distributed throughout the year, with an annual rainfall exceeding 200 cm. The soil in this area is nutrient-poor and acidic. The area is rich in fauna, and include numerous birds, bats, small mammals, and insects.

B. The Temperate:

Temperature varies from -30° C to 30° C. Precipitation of 75-150 cm and is distributed evenly throughout the year. The soil is fertile, enriched with decaying litter. The canopy is dense to a moderate level and allows light to penetrate, leading to a well-developed and richly diversified under story vegetation and stratification of animals. Their flora is characterized by 3-4 tree species per square kilometers.

C. Boreal Forest:

The temperature here is very low. Precipitation is primarily in the form of snow, 40-100 cm annually. Soil is thin, nutrient-poor, and acidic and the light rays do not really enter the area. Fauna includes woodpeckers, hawks, fox and bear.

Things to know Before to visit a Forest

What do you Need to Have Before Visiting a Forest?

There are a couple of things you need to have before venturing into a forest. It requires some level
of preparedness from your side to avoid any harm to yourself or your group.

1. Team up: always go and explore as a team. The forests are usually deep and thick and it is always a best idea to have a team of people with you so that you have each other’s company in the dark. Also, the animals do not really attack you when you are in a team.

2. Binoculars: If you are fond of bird watching, binoculars are a must. The forests cover a range of exotic birds that are not otherwise visible. Carry a binocular with you, so that you get to really explore the nature.

3. Self Defence Objects: It is always good to carry a self defence tool, to ensure unwanted encounters with wild animals. While there will be a round the clock security, it might so happen that you might have to protect yourself at times.

4. Carry the Map: You need to know your route well and the immediate exits and alternate routes. Study the map well and let it everyone learn it.

5. No intimidating clothes: Do not wear threatening apparel and garments and invite attention.

6. Prepare for the weather: Be prepared for any weather. Accordingly carry your caps or rain coats to make your trip comfortable.

The Do’s and Don’ts in Forest Areas:

  • Do not carry alcohol or plastic containers. Be sure not to litter the place. Do stay hydrated and drink electrolytes that will prepare you for the long trek.
  • Do not carry hammers as objects of self-defence. Do carry the contact number of the security officer to contact in case of emergency.
  • Do not leave your valuables in the tent. Do lock your tents and ensure the place where you have put the tent is safe and a little away from the main forest.
  • Do not scream and make unnecessary noise. Do ensure to maintain a calmness around you and the vicinity.
  • Do not venture out solo. Do carry the route map and make note of the exits, water refill stations etc.

20 Popular Tourist Visiting Forests in World with Names:

Classification of forest are done under various parameters. Here are some 20 different types of forests found all over the globe.

1. Temperate Deciduous Broad Leaf Forest:

The temperate deciduous forest is also called temperate broad leaf forest. This type of forest is mainly found in Northern hemisphere. Also found in some areas of southern South America and Australasia. The regions are East Asia, Europe and North America. The trees of this type of forest lose their leaves every year. They are found in moist summer and mild winter regions. Northern hemisphere includes trees like oak, maple, elm in this deciduous forest.

TOP 15 TYPES OF FOREST1

In the natural forest, 30% is canopy cover and in which 75% of canopy is broad leaf and deciduous. There is a phenomenon of seasonal appearance and disappearance of canopy. The migratory birds appear during the opening of the canopy and woodpeckers are frequently seen as they mainly depend on dead and dying trees as the source of their shelter and food also.

2. Thorn Forest:

In this type of forest, canopy is composed of deciduous trees with thorns. This forest is below 1200 m altitude with 30% canopy cover. This forest covers a large part of southwestern Africa and Southwestern North America. It also covers some parts of Africa, Australia and South America. Thorn forest has scrub like vegetation and is of dense forest. Dry subtropical and warm temperate areas with seasonal or low rainfall are the characteristic feature of the thorn forest.

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In South America, thorn forest mainly consists of thorny small trees which shed seasonally. The average height of the trees is between 7 meters and 8 meters, not more than 10 m. This thorn forest grades into desert as the climate becomes adverse and drier. Thus, the name of this type of forest suits the type of vegetation found over here. The picture above will give you an idea on the yet another different type of forests in the world.

3. Mangroves:

The term mangrove come from Spanish and is considered to be originated from Guarani. The main characteristic feature of mangrove forest is the different species of mangrove trees which are usually found along the coast of salt water. They are found between latitudes 25 N and 25 S. Mangrove forest occurs in the tropical regions world widely. Mangroves are found in tidal areas and where areas include the marine shorelines. They are scrub land habitat or saline woodland habitat where there is a high depositional in area. The mangrove swamps protect the coastal areas from the soil erosion, tsunamis, cyclones and storms. Unique ecosystem is seen in the complex mesh of the roots. Algae, sponges, oysters, mud lobsters are usual found in these habitat.

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Mangrove is normally found in 118 countries and regions of tropical and sub tropics. India, Bangladesh, Thailand, Vietnam and other countries among which Asia has the largest amount of mangroves with other parts as Africa, North and South America. Deltas of river Ganges, Godavari and others are known for mangrove forest. Sundarbans National park is listed in UNESCO world heritage for the ecosystem present there and mainly known for Royal Bengal Tiger and other variety of flora and fauna.

4. Sparse Trees And Parkland:

The sparse trees and parkland forest are the ones in which tree canopy cover is between 10% to 30% like the trees found in savannah regions of the globe. These trees occur in the areas mainly from forested to non forested landscapes. The boreal region and seasonally dry region are the two regions at which this type of ecosystem is present. The vegetation is also called open lichen woodland, forest tundra and taiga.

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In the boreal forest at high temperature the conditions for growing are not appropriate to easily maintain a continuous forest cover. For this reason the forest cover in that region is discontinuous and sparse. Trees of the types needle leaf, palms, broad leaf are found in this forest. It has high bryophyte and deficit of species in this type of forests.

5. Needle Leaf Forest:

The canopy cover of trees in this forest is greater than 30% and these types of trees are mostly found below altitude 1200 meter. Long and cold winter regions predominately have this type of forest. The needle leaf forests are spread across northern Europe, Canada and Siberia. They are also called softwood forests. This forest also covers the mountain regions of Rocky Mountains and Alps. Firs and larches usually grow in the northern forests, also with broad leaf trees like willows, etc.

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Willow can grow even farther north and these trees used to do. Many world largest trees are found into western United States. Some redwoods are as tall as 91 meters in height. Some of them grew in warmer regions and are located in South Eastern United States consisting of large forest of pines. Needle leaf forest is useful for providing greater quantity of wood for different purposes.

6. Semi Evergreen And Evergreen Moist Broad Leaf Forest:

The tropical and semi tropical moist forest are generally found in many regions all over the world and are found discontinuously between Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn. They normally have high level of rainfall and low variation in annual temperature of the forest. For these reason, it is composed of evergreen and semi evergreen forest. This forest consists of highest diversity of species in trees. The ecosystem has more species than any other forests have.

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Forest canopy can be divided into layers such as lower canopy, shrub level, over story canopy with crowns, medium layered canopy and under story. Canopies are the home for the apes and monkeys, and also the snakes and big cats. Gorillas and deer lies in the forest floor of this type. Thus it has diversified ecosystem. These forests cover the region like peninsular Malaysia, north western South America, western arc Of Amazon Basin, etc.

7. Lowland Evergreen Broad Leaf Rain Forest:

They are also referred as Tropical rain forests. The lowland evergreen forest is found in the altitudes below 1200 meters which have no seasonal change usually. An average precipitation remains all over the year at least of 60 mm. These forests extend mainly from equator about 10 degrees in north and 10 degree on south. Roughly they extend maximum to 28 degrees within the two tropics.

TOP 15 TYPES OF FOREST7

This rain forest can be classified into its sub types. The tropical rain forests is described as hot and wet. Due to high precipitation level, it leads to poor quality of soil. This tropical rain forest covers the region: Africa, Southern Asia, New Guinea, tropical America and some parts of Australia.

8. Freshwater Swamp Forest:

The fresh water swamp forest is also popularly known as flooded forests. They are either seasonal or permanent type of forest. They are found in different regions from subtropical to tropical and from boreal to temperate regions. Normally found around the fresh water lakes or lower portions of river, this satisfies the name of the forest.

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The Eco regions of freshwater swamp forests are Australasia, Niger delta swamp forest in Nigeria, South Asia, Brazil, Peru and other parts. Characteristics of the trees in this forest are of any type of leaves and season. The main characteristic of this type is waterlogged soil. The image above will give you an idea.

9. Broad Leaf Evergreen Forest:

The canopy of this type of forest is broad leaf and also evergreen species of trees. This forest requires plentiful rainfall. This forest is restricted to southern Japan, coastal region of Gulf of Mexico and central China.

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This ecology consists of four layers. Tall trees ranging from 30 m to 61 m in height is the predominant feature and below this there are three layers that range from 9 m to 15 m shorter than the canopy. The broad leaf trees include beeches, oaks and maple in northern hemisphere and in southern hemisphere Eucalyptus, etc occupies this ecosystem.

10. Exotic Species Plantation:

The term exotic is terms as introduced, non-native, immigrant. The main difference between the invasion and exotic species is that the exotic ones are meant for conservation and also for profits. The trees have been planted with species by the people not occurring naturally in the region of the country and this manages to be an intensive forest having canopy cover greater than 30%.

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They are being introduced in various parts of the world where it is required to maintain a balance and also meant to be useful. Exotic species have played a role in production of timber wood, fibre, fire wood or other products like in America. Tropical and sub tropical areas are best in soil quality and climatic condition for the exotic type of plantation.

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11. Deciduous Needle Leaf Forest:

The canopy for forest is predominantly deciduous and needle leaf. The deciduous needle leaf forest lies in between a particular latitude span. This forest is predominantly found in two main regions of the globe: One is in Eurasia of latitude from 40 degree to 75 degree and other is in Northern America.

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The forest of Siberia, Europe and North America made up of evergreen conifers like Pine while that of in eastern Siberia the main is the larch which comprises a deciduous forest and sheds the needle leaves in winter. In the needle leaf forest areas, willow and birch are characteristic trees which are found in the borders of river or in the open spaces.

12. Evergreen Needle Leaf Forest:

This type of forests mainly have prominent evergreen and needle leaf canopy. This forest extends in mountain range and plateau region in lower latitudes. In Europe this forest extends over the high mountain ranges and in Scandinavia. In western North America, it extends to Rocky mountain range, southward of United States and Sierra Nevada.

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The evergreen needle leaf forests provide deep shade to the ground. This makes up to a thick carpet mosses in the lower layers of the Eco system. This type of forest does not consist of variety of species except one or two varieties mainly.

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13. Sclerophyllous Dry Forest:

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The word is coined from two Greek words, ‘skleros means hard and ‘phyllon’ means leaves. This forest occurs in many regions of the world. Sclerophyll is a type of vegetation which has shorter internodes and very hard leaves. They mainly consist of sclerophyllous broad leaves. This forest is found in the regions like parts of Australia, Mediterranean forest, some parts of Africa, California woodland and other parts. The common plants found are eucalyptus, tea tree and acacias. Dry sclerophyll is the most common type of forest with restricted rainfall.

14. Lower Montane Rain Forest:

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This forest refers to rain forest in tropical regions on the mountain slopes different from the lowland
rain forest in plains and flat lands. They are generally found between 1200-1800-meterof altitude. They are generally above the evergreen rain forest of lowland and lower than the cloud forest in higher altitude. Lower montane rain forest is mostly distinct in Peninsular Malaysia, Bintang ranges and East coast mountain ranges. It can be classified into two sub types upper hill dipterocarp type and oak laurel type.

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15. Upper Montane Forest:

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This upper montane forest is found in relatively very high altitudes in mountain regions. This vegetarian type is found normally below sub alpine forest and above mixed coniferous forest. This type is found in Sierra Nevada range, Lassen volcanic park, Pike and San Isabel nation forest. Trees like Jeffery pine, lodge pole pine, California red fir are the characteristic tree found in this type of forest. They are found in altitudes higher than 1800 meters with leaf type mixture.

The India’s Most Visited Forest Attractions:

16. Bandhavgarh National Park:

]It is located within the Vindhya Range, the Bandhavgarh National Park can be vouched for housing the highest density of tiger population in India. The best view of tigers here is guaranteed and is famous for highest density of Bengal tigers. The main attraction is the safari option of Jeep orcar Safari or even an elephant Safari. Visit the place during November to February. It is a safe place for all.

17. Corbett National Park:

The Corbett National Park is located in the foothills of the Himalayas and is spread over the districts of Nainital and Garhwal in the State of Uttarakhand, located in northern India and their main attraction include the royal Bengal Tigers & Great Indian Elephant. Their safari options include the Jungle Safari, Elephant Rid, Bird watching. Best time to visit the place is during mid-November and mid-June. The place is known for safety.

18. Ranthambore National Park:

Ranthambore National Park is one of the most popular places to visit for all those wildlife lovers out there. Project Tiger took place here in 1972. It received the status of a national park in the year 1980. It is spread on an area of 1,334 square kilometers along with its neigh bouring sanctuaries- the Kaila Devi Sanctuary and the Mansingh Sanctuary. The main attraction includes the tiger, Sambar deer, peacock, leopard. The best time to visit the place is between November to March and is considered safe.

19. Sundarbans National Park:

December to February is the ideal time to visit the place and offers major attractions like Royal Bengal tiger, wild boar, fox, mongoose. Sundarbans is the largest estuarine forest in West Bengal, covered by Mangrove forest. You have to avail a boat to traverse the place and no jeep is allowed. The place is moderately safe is and is often strayed by wild animals.

20. Gir National Park:

It is located in Gujarat and the best time to visit is October to June. It is one of the popular attraction in Gujarat. Asiatic lions are a major attraction here with over 38 species of mammals, 37 species of reptiles and 2000 insect species. The place is considered safe for visitors.

21. Kaziranga National Park:

Kaziranga is located in Assam and is one of the popular tourist destination in India. The place is safe and their major attractions include one-horned rhinoceros, Asiatic elephants, buffaloes and Royal Bengal tigers. The best time to visit the place is November to April.

The different types of Forest of the world are truly different in nature. With acres of land dedicated for the flora and fauna, they house a wide variety of exotic birds, plants and water bodies. Whichever forest you decide to venture, follow our quick do’s and don’ts that is an absolute essential along with the necessary things you need to know before venturing into one. Put safety first!