15 Different Types Of Forests With Pictures

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Forest helps to maintain the ecosystem of the Earth. Forest consists of variety of trees and woody vegetation. It is also said to be a perfect place for variety of flora and fauna. Forests cover a wide region of our Earth crust and are well distributed across the whole world. It also plays a very important role in maintaining ecological balance. Forests are the place for tourist attraction and they also provide several products that are helpful to mankind. They provide shelter for different animals and a habitat for them.

Types of Forests

These types of forest present in a particular place is dependent on the temperature of the region and the longitude & latitude. Different latitude has different ecozones. Like, Boreal forests are found near the poles tropical forests are found near the equator and temperate forests are at mid latitude.

Different Types of Forests in World With Names:

Classification of forest can be done on the various criteria. 15 different types of forests found all over the globe are given below:

1. Temperate Deciduous Broad Leaf Forest:

The temperate deciduous forest is also called temperate broad leaf forest. This type of forest is mainly found in Northern hemisphere. Also found in some areas of southern South America and Australasia. The regions are East Asia, Europe and North America. The trees of this type of forest lose their leaves every year. They are found in moist summer and mild winter regions. Northern hemisphere includes trees like oak, maple, elm in this deciduous forest.


In the natural forest, 30% is canopy cover and in which 75% of canopy is broad leaf and deciduous. There is a phenomenon of seasonal appearance and disappearance of canopy. The migratory birds appear during the opening of the canopy and woodpeckers are frequently seen as they mainly depend on dead and dying trees as the source of their shelter and food also.

2. Thorn Forest:

In this type of forest, canopy is composed of deciduous trees with thorns. This forest is below 1200 m altitude with 30% canopy cover. This forest covers a large part of southwestern Africa and Southwestern North America,. It also covers some parts of Africa, Australia and South America. Thorn forest has scrub like vegetation and is of dense forest. Dry subtropical and warm temperate areas with seasonal or low rainfall are the characteristic feature of the thorn forest.


In South America thorn forest mainly consists of thorny small trees which shed seasonally. The average height of the trees is between 7 meters and 8 meters, not more than 10 m. This thorn forest grades into desert as the climate becomes adverse and drier. Thus the name of this type of forest suits the type of vegetation found over here.

3. Mangroves:

The term mangrove came from Spanish and is considered to be originated from Guarani. The main characteristic feature of mangrove forest is the different species of mangrove trees which are usually found along the coast of salt water. They are found between latitudes 25 N and 25 S. Mangrove forest occurs in the tropical regions world widely. Mangroves are found in tidal areas and where areas include the marine shorelines. They are scrub land habitat or saline woodland habitat where there is a high depositional in area. The mangrove swamps protect the coastal areas from the soil erosion, tsunamis, cyclones and storms. Unique ecosystem is seen in the complex mesh of the roots. Algae, sponges, oysters, mud lobsters are usual found in these habitat.


Mangrove is normally found in 118 countries and regions of tropical and sub tropics. India, Bangladesh, Thailand, Vietnam and other countries among which Asia has the largest amount of mangroves with other parts as Africa, North and South America. Deltas of river Ganges, Godavari and others are known for mangrove forest. Sundarbans National park is listed in UNESCO world heritage for the ecosystem present there and mainly known for Royal Bengal Tiger and other variety of flora and fauna.

4. Sparse Trees And Parkland:

The sparse trees and parkland forest are the ones in which tree canopy cover is between 10% to 30% like the trees found in savannah regions of the globe. These trees occur in the areas mainly from forested to non forested landscapes. The boreal region and seasonally dry region are the two regions at which this type of ecosystem is present. The vegetation is also called open lichen woodland, forest tundra and taiga.


In the boreal forest at high temperature the conditions for growing are not appropriate to easily maintain a continuous forest cover. For this reason the forest cover in that region is discontinuous and sparse. Trees of the types needle leaf, palms, broad leaf are found in this forest. It has high bryophyte and deficit of species in this type of forests.

5. Needle Leaf Forest:

The canopy cover of trees in this forest is greater than 30% and these types of trees are mostly found below altitude 1200 meter. Long and cold winter regions predominately have this type of forest. The needle leaf forests are spread across northern Europe, Canada and Siberia. They are also called softwood forests. This forest also covers the mountain regions of Rocky Mountains and Alps. Firs and larches usually grow in the northern forests, also with broad leaf trees like willows, etc.


Willow can grow even farther north and these trees used to do. Many world largest trees are found into western United States. Some redwoods are as tall as 91 meters in height. Some of them grew in warmer regions like southeastern United States consisting of large forest of pines. Needle leaf forest is useful for providing greater quantity of wood for different purposes.

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