For any living organism to survive in this world, they require proteins, nutrients and oxygen. For transfer these substances to all parts of cells of the body their need to be some transport. Blood acts as transporter in the body. It accounts 7% of human body weight with an average density of 1060 kg/m3 for adult an average volume of blood is five liters. It is composed of plasma and different types of cells. Blood constitutes different type of corpuscles in it. They are known red blood corpuscles, leukocytes and thrombocytes. For those who want to know how many types of blood groups in human body:
Red blood cells constitute 45 % of blood; plasma is about 54.3% and leukocytes of 0.7%. Colour of blood is red, it is obtained by a substance which is present in it is called hemoglobin. A blood is decided based on the presence of antigens on the surface of red blood cells. Blood types are inherited and represented by contributions from both parents. So far International Society of Blood Transfusion had recognized 35 human blood group systems. Here are the main blood group and blood type
Why Do Blood Types Differ:
Blood is made of up of red and white blood cells, plasma and proteins. The plasma has antigens floating in it which is responsible for offering immunity to the body. Antigens are of two types, A and B, which produce different antibodies to fight the disease causing germs. People with O blood group have both the antibodies. This difference in antibodies create resistance to some diseases and vulnerable to others.
Percentage Of Blood Groups In India:
As per study, the most common blood group in India is O with a 37.12% of population. The second most common blood group is B with a 32,26%, followed by A at 22.8%. AB is the least found blood in the Indian subcontinent.
Rarest Blood Type In India:
The rarest blood group is Bombay Blood group, found only in 0.01% of Indian population. It is most likely found in Mumbai locals and hence the name. Among this, the negative blood group is even more rare in occurrence than positive. It is estimated that only 15 donors are identified across India with this blood group.
Blood Groups Are Classified According To Their Antigens InTo Four:
- Blood group A.
- Blood group B.
- Blood group O
- Blood group AB.
Blood group is decided whether it is positive or negative based on the Rh factor present in it. Presence of Rh antigen on red blood cells, then that particular blood is positive, if Rh is absent then it is negative. Listed below are the blood group types and their importance.
1. Blood Group AB:
These group of people can receive blood from any group especially AB preferable. But there is no chance of donating blood for this blood group people. This group of people are called are as universal acceptors or recipients.
2. Blood Group AB+:
Blood group AB+ is rare group worldwide. It has prevalence of only 4%. Blood group can improve their blood by taking diet like meat, diary, sea food, grains, nuts, fat, fruits and vegetables. As AB positive is universal acceptor all groups of blood can be transfused.
3. Blood Group AB-:
Only 1% of donor populations are available with AB negative blood. It is more required for men for manufacture of plasma. Same diet of AB +ve is followed for AB –ve also. AB- can receive blood from O negative, A negative, B negative and AB negative.
4. Blood Group A:
If the individuals have antigen A on surface of red blood cells then that is characterized as blood group A. This group has serum Igm antibodies against B antigen. These people can donate blood to only to people having blood group A and AB. Diet for blood group A has to follow is a meat free diet which is nothing but they must be complete vegetarian. They have to take beans, legumes, fruits, vegetables, whole grains which are organically fresh. This group has sensitive immune system.
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5. Blood Group A+:
A positive is second most blood groups where patients needs a lot. They can receive blood from A positive, A negative, O positive and O negative. Approximately one among three constitutes 35.7 % of this group.
6. Blood Group A-:
In the world only 6.3 % of people have this group. It is rare group. These can receive blood from A negative and O negative only.
7. Blood Group B:
The persons who are possessing antigen B on red blood cells are grouped under blood group B. This group has serum Igm antibodies against A antigen. They receive blood from group B or group O. They can donate to individuals for group B or group AB. They must be herbivores and can avoid chicken, peanuts, sesame seeds, tomatoes, lentils, wheat, corn and buckwheat.
8. Blood Group B+:
B positive is third donor in the world. One among 12 individuals has B positive blood on an average of 8.5% population.
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9. Blood Group B-:
This is the rare blood group and unique. On conduction of survey it is known that only one among 67 people has B negative blood group on an average of 1.5%.
10. Blood Group O:
Blood group O is termed as blood group zero in some countries. This group does not have antigen A and antigen B on red blood cells. Even blood serum does not contain antibodies A and B also. So group O can receive blood from only people who are having blood group O. This group people can donate blood to all people of other groups as it never contains antigens and antibodies. Therefore blood group O is called as universal donors. Since blood group O is compatible to all groups.
Diet for individuals who are having blood group O to be followed is high protein diet. It includes lean meat, fish, poultry, and vegetables, lightly of grains, dairy products and beans.
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11. Blood Group O +:
O positive is donor. It is most common blood needed by all patients in need. On an average one among three has 37.4 % of blood group O. O positive can only donate to O group people only.
12. Blood Group O-:
O negative is called as universal donor. It can be transfused to all groups of blood. In the world only 6.6% of people have O negative blood. It is heard that O negative are medical helicopters for patients in trauma or in serious condition. One among 15 has O negative blood. If a person of O negative is in need of blood also again O negative donor must only donate the blood.
Not only blood groups but also plasma has compatibility. So in this manner blood is classified into groups. Since some antigens of the patient triggers immune system to attack transfused blood, it is safer to transfuse a blood which is suitable. So it is the duty of one’s individuality to donate blood to the needed when there is need. For every three months human body reproduces new red blood cells. Make a habit of giving blood yearly twice.
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